Rape Trauma Syndrome RTS was coined by psychiatrist Ann Wolbert Burgess and sociologist Lynda Lytle Holmstrom in 1974. Rape Trauma Syndrome is the psychological trauma experienced by a rape victim that affects his or her typical physical, emotional, cognitive, and interpersonal behavior.
At its roots RTS is a collection of psychological and physical signs, symptoms and reactions that occur after rape for months or years. Both women and men can exhibit signs of RTS after a rape. Because of RTS we now have the diagnosis complex post-traumatic stress disorder that better describes prolonged and complicated trauma than post traumatic stress disorder. But the two don't exit in a vacuum. RTS and CPTSD do intersect especially after a rape has occurred and the victim is distressed. For most people the feeling or distress will lessen in severity with time but there are a few people who have long lasting psychological distressing effects from RTS and CPTSD for months or years. But what's also tragic is the fact rape victims are at high risk for becoming addicted to narcotics, develop major depression, have high rates of anxiety, show signs of obsessive compulsive disorder, and eating disorders.
Now let's discuss the stages of RTS:
These are the three psychological trauma a rape survivor will go through.
The first is Acute Stage.
The second stage is Outer Adjustment Stage.
The third stage is The Renormalization Stage.
The acute stage occurs in the days or weeks after a rape. Durations vary as to the amount of time the victim may remain in the acute stage. The immediate symptoms may last a few days to a few weeks and may overlap with the outward adjustment stage.
There is no "typical" response amongst rape victims. However, the U.S. Rape Abuse and Incest National Network (RAINN) asserts that, in most cases, a rape victim's acute stage can be classified as one of three responses Expressed: Victim may appear agitated or hysterical and may suffer from crying spells or anxiety attacks. Controlled: The survivor appears to be without emotion and acts as if 'nothing happened' and 'everything is fine. Shock/disbelief: The survivor reacts with a strong sense of disorientation. They may have difficulty concentrating, making decisions, or doing everyday tasks. They may also have poor recall of the assault. Not all rape survivors show their emotions outwardly. Some may appear calm and unaffected by the assault.
Behaviors present in the acute stage can include:
Dulled sensory, affective and memory functions.
Disorganized thought content.
Pronounced internal tremor.
Obsession to wash or clean themselves.
Hysteria, confusion and crying.
Acute sensitivity to the reaction of other people.
The outward adjustment stage:
Survivors in this stage seem to have resumed their normal lifestyle. However, they simultaneously suffer profound internal turmoil, which may manifest in a variety of ways as the survivor copes with the long-term trauma of a rape. In a 1976 paper, Burgess and Holmstrom that all but 1 of their 92 subjects exhibited maladaptive coping mechanisms after a rape. The outward adjustment stage may last from several months to many years after a rape.
RAINN identifies five main coping strategies during the outward adjustment phase:
minimization (pretending 'everything is fine')
dramatization (cannot stop talking about the assault)
suppression (refuses to discuss the rape)
explanation (analyzes what happened)
flight (moves to a new home or city, alters appearance)
Other coping mechanisms that may appear during the outward adjustment phase include:
poor health in general.
sense of helplessness
inability to maintain previously close relationships
experiencing a general response of nervousness known as the "startle response"
persistent fear and or depression at much higher rates than the general population
mood swings from relatively happy to depression or anger
extreme anger and hostility more typical of male or masculine victims than female or feminine victims
sleep disturbances such as vivid dreams and recurring nightmares
insomnia, wakefulness, night terrors
dissociation feeling like one is not attached to one's body
reliance on coping mechanisms, some of which may be beneficial i.e, philosophy and family support, and others that may ultimately be counterproductive i.e self harm, drug, or alcohol abuse
Survivors in this stage can have their lifestyle affected in some of the following ways:
Their sense of personal security or safety is damaged
They feel hesitant to enter new relationships
Questioning their sexual identity or sexual orientation (more typical of men raped by other men or women raped by other women)
Sexual relationships become disturbed. Many survivors have reported that they were unable to re-establish normal sexual relations and often shied away from sexual contact for some time after the rape. Some report inhibited sexual response and flashbacks to the rape during intercourse. Conversely, some rape survivors become hyper-sexual or promiscuous following sexual attacks, sometimes as a way to reassert a measure of control over their sexual relations
Some rape survivors may see the world as a more threatening place to live in, so they will place restrictions on their lives, interrupting their normal activity. For example, they may discontinue previously active involvements in societies, groups or clubs, or a parent who was a survivor of rape may place restrictions on the freedom of their children.
Whether or not they were injured during a sexual assault, rape survivors exhibit higher rates of poor health in the months and years after an assault, including acute somatoform disorders (physical symptoms with no identifiable cause). Physiological reactions such as tension headaches, fatigue, general feelings of soreness or localized pain in the chest, throat, arms or legs. Specific symptoms may occur that relate to the area of the body assaulted. Survivors of oral rape may have a variety of mouth and throat complaints, while survivors of vaginal or anal rape have physical reactions related to these areas.
Nature Of The Assault
The nature of the act, the relationship with the offender, the type and amount of force used, and the circumstances of the assault all influence the impact of an assault on the victim.
When the assault is committed by a stranger, fear seems to be the most difficult emotion to manage for many people. (Feelings of vulnerability arise).
More commonly, assaults are committed by someone the victim knows and trusts. May be heightened feelings of self-blame and guilt.
Victims attempt to return to their lives as if nothing happened.
May block thoughts of the assault from their minds and may not want to talk about the incident or any of the related issues. (They don't want to think about it).
Victims may have difficulty in concentrating and some depression.
Dissociation and trying to get back to their lives before the assault.
The underground stage may last for years and the victim seems as though they are "over it", despite the fact the emotional issues are not resolved.
May return to emotional turmoil
The return of emotional pain can extremely frighten people in this stage.
Fears and phobias may develop. They may be related specifically to the assailant or the circumstances or the attack or they may be much more generalized.
Appetite disturbances such as nausea and vomiting. Rape survivors are also prone to developing anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia.
Nightmares, night terrors feel like they plague the victim.
Violent fantasies of revenge may also arise.
A common psychological defense that is seen in rape survivors is the development of fears and phobias specific to the circumstances of the rape, for example:
A fear of being in crowds.
A fear of being left alone anywhere.
A fear of men or women. (androphobia or gynophobia)
A fear of going out at all, agoraphobia.
A fear of being touched, hapnophobia.
Specific fears related to certain characteristics of the assailant, e.g. side-burns, straight hair, the smell of alcohol or cigarettes, type of clothing or car.
Some survivors develop very suspicious, paranoid feelings about strangers.
Some feel a pervasive fear of most or all other people.
The Renormalization Stage
In this stage, the survivor begins to recognize his or her adjustment phase. Recognizing the impact of the rape for survivors who were in denial, and recognizing the secondary damage of any counterproductive coping tactics (e.g., recognizing that one's drug abuse began to help cope with the aftermath of a rape) is particularly important. Male victims typically do not seek psychotherapy for a long time after the sexual assault—according to Lacey and Roberts, less than half of male victims sought therapy within six months and the average interval between assault and therapy was 2.5 years; King and Woollett's study of over 100 male rape victims found that the mean interval between assault and therapy was 16.4 years.
During renormalization, survivors integrate the sexual assault into their lives so that the rape is no longer the central focus of their lives; negative feelings such as guilt and shame become resolved, and survivors no longer blame themselves for the attack.
Rape is not and should not be treated as a cut from a bike fall. Rape has immediate and long term effects that leave victims in a world full of confusion. We need to as a collective bring awareness to rape and the aftermath of rape to dismantle myths surrounding rape. 1 in 6 women will experience an attempted rape or a completed rape. 60% of Black women will experience sexual abuse by the age of 18. 40% of rape victims have mental health disorders. Lastly, Rape is a crime that's significantly under reported. If rape culture has never been a problem to you, now it is.
Special Acknowledgement to Wikipedia: HERE
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